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Animalia – Invertebrates; Molluscs, Crustaceans and other invertebrates

Biodiversity Catalog of Southwest Virginia

Molluscs and Crustaceans

Freshwater Mussels

Freshwater Mussel Taxonomy:
Kingdom Animalia;  Phylum Mollusca;  Class Bivalvia;  Order Unionoida; Family Unionidae





ThumbnailScientific Name Common NameStreamCounty
Actinonaias ligamentinaMucketClinch R.R
Actinonaias pectorosaPheasantshellClinch R.R, T
Alasmidonta marginataElktoeClinch R.R
Alasmidonta viridusSlippershellBig Moccasin Cr.; Copper Cr.; Clinch R.R
Amblema plicataThreeridgeClinch R.R
Cyclonaias TuberculataPurple WartybackClinch R.R
Elliptio DilatataSpikeClinch R.R
Epioblasma capsaeformisOystermusselClinch R.R
Epioblasma florentina walkeriTan RiffleshellIndian Cr.T
Fusconaia barnesianaTennessee PigtoeCopper Cr.; Big Moccasin Cr.; Clinch R.; Plum Cr.; Cavitts Cr.; North Fork Clinch R.; South Fork Clinch R.R, T
Fusconaia corShiny PigtoeClinch R.R
Fusconaia cuneolusFinerayed PigtoeClinch R.R
Fusconaia subrotundaLongsolidClinch R.R
Lampsilis fasciolaWavyrayed LampmusselBig Moccasin Cr.; Clinch R.R, T
Lampsilis fasciola Wavyrayed LampmusselCopper Cr.; Big Moccasin Cr.; Clinch R.R, T
Lampsilis ovataPocketbookClinch R.R
Lasmigona costataFlutedshellClinch R.R
Lasmigona holstoniaTennessee HeelsplitterPlum Cr.; Cavitts Cr; North Fork Clinch R.; South Fork Clinch R.; Clinch R.; T
Lexingtonia dolabelloides Slabside PearlymusselBig Moccasin Cr.; Clinch R.R
Ligumia rectaBlack SandshellClinch R.R
Medionidus conradicusCumberland MoccasinshellCopper Cr.; Big Moccasin Cr.; Clinch R.; Cavitts Cr.R, T
Pegias fabulaLittlewing PearlymusselClinch R.T
Pleurobema oviforme Tennessee ClubshellCopper Cr.; Big Moccasin Cr.; Clinch R.; Plum Cr.R, T
Potamilus alatusPink Heelsplitter Clinch R.R
Ptychobranchus fasciolarisKidneyshellClinch R.R, T
Ptychobranchus subtentumFluted KidneyshellClinch R.R, T
Quadrula cylindrica strigillataRough RabbitsfootClinch R.R, T
Quadrula sparsaAppalachian MonkeyfaceClinch R.R
Villosa irisRainbow MusselCopper Cr.; Clinch R.; Plum Cr.; Deskin Cr.; Cavitts Cr.; Linconshire Br.; North Fork Clinch R.; South Fork Clinch R.R, T
Villosa nebulosaAlabama RainbowBig Moccasin Cr.;R
Villosa perpurpureaPurple BeanClinch R.R, T
Villosa vanuxemensisMountain CreekshellClinch R.R, T
Villosa vanuxemi Big Moccasin Cr.R


Snail Taxonomy

Kingdom Animalia;  Phylum Mollusca;  Class Gastropoda

Order Basommatophora

ThumbnailFamilyScientific Name Common NameStreamCounty
PhysidaePhysa gyrinaLewis Creek, West Fork Big Creek, Little Cedar Creek and Clinch River – tributaries of Clinch RiverR, T

Order Neotaenioglossa

ThumbnailFamilyScientific Name Common NameStreamCounty
PleuriceridaeLeptoxis praerosaMainstream River Snail; Onyx RocksnailClinch RiverR
PleuroceridaeIo fluvialisSpiny RiversnailClinch RiverR
PleuroceridaePleurocera clavaeformis (or Goniobasis clavaeformis or Elimia clavaeformis)Club ElimiaIndian Creek, Clinch River, Little River, Copper Creek and Big Cedar Creek – tributaries of Clinch RiverR, T
PleuroceridaePleurocera simplex (or Goniobasis simplex or Elimia simplex)Smooth ElimiaLewis Creek, South Fork Clinch, Maiden Spring Creek, Little River, Elk Garden Creek, Little Cedar Creek, Big Cedar Creek and Hogwallow Branch – tributaries of Clinch RiverR, T


Crayfish Taxonomy

Kingdom Animalia; Phylum Arthropoda; Class Malacostraca

ThumbnailFamilyScientific NameCommon NameCounty
CambaridaeCambarus (C.) angularisNoneR,T
CambaridaeCambarus (H.) longirostrisNoneR,T
CambaridaeCambarus bartoniAppalachian Brook CrayfishT
CambaridaeCambarus dubiusUpland Burrowing CrayfishD, T
CambaridaeCambarus longirostrisNoneR,T
CambaridaeOrconectes (C.) erichsonianusNoneR
CambaridaeOrconectes (P.) spinosusNoneR,T


Gastropod Taxonomy

Kingdom Anamalia; Phylum Mollusca; Class Gastropoda

ThumbnailFamilyScientific NameCommon NameCountyWtrbdy/Dr
ViviparidaeCampeloma decisumPointed CampelomaRLittle R
PleuroceridaeIo fluvialisSpiny RiversnailRClinch R, Little R
PolygyridaeMesodon appressusFlat BladetoothD
PolygyridaeMesodon inflectusShagreenR
PolygyridaeTriodopsis tridentataNorthern Three ToothT


Copepod Taxonomy

Kingdom Anamalia; Phylum Arthropoda; Class Maxillopoda

ThumbnailFamilyScientific NameCommon NameCounty
CyclopidaeAcanthocyclops exilisNoneRussell
CyclopidaeParacyclops poppeiNoneRussell
CanthocamptidaeBryocamptus (Limocamptus) nivalisNoneRussell
CanthocamptidaeBryocamptus zschokkeiNoneRussell


Dillon Jr, R. T., & Robinson, J. D. (2007). The Goniobasis (“Elimia”) of southwest Virginia, I. Population Genetic Survey.

Duncan, A. E., Ferraro, J. J., & Watson, B. T. (2010). Freshwater Mussel Survey of Cleveland Island, Clinch River, Virginia: Augmentation Monitoring Site: 2008.

Ferraro, J. J., Watson, B. T., & Wood, A. E. (2009). Freshwater Mussel Survey of Three Sites at Cedar Bluff, Clinch River, Virginia: Augmentation Monitoring Sites-2007.

Hanlon, S. D., Petty, M. A., & Neves, R. J. (2009). Status of native freshwater mussels in Copper Creek, Virginia. Southeastern Naturalist, 8(1), 1-18.

Jones, J. W., Neves, R. J., Patterson, M. A., Good, C. R., & DiVittorio, A. (2001). A status survey of freshwater mussel populations in the upper Clinch River, Tazewell County, Virginia. Banisteria, 17, 20-30.

Neves, R. J., & Zale, A. V. (1982). Freshwater mussels (Unionidae) of Big Moccasin Creek, southwestern Virginia. Nautilus, 96(2), 52-54.

Tan Riffleshell Epioblasma florentina walkeri 5-year review: Summary and Evaluation (2013)

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